From 1933-1945, the Rockefeller Foundation spent $1.5 million to save scholars from war and fascist governments in Europe by subsidizing "teaching positions for more than 300 academics at schools in the United States and Europe, including many appointments at New York’s New School for Social Research." Drawing upon two years of research in the foundation's archives, Steve Clemons discovered "fascinating, consequential debates about intellectual life under the Nazis—heart-wrenching correspondence about the state of European universities at a time when Adolf Hitler was beginning to wage war against both independent thought and Jewish academics."
The Rockefeller Foundation managed to save a number of eminent scholars, including Henri Bonnet, Henri Gregoire, Claude Levi-Strauss, Otto Meyerhof, Charles Oberling, and Ludwig Von Mises. The group included six Nobel Prize laureates and six future Nobel Prize winners. But many more, like Marc Bloch, went unsaved